Tuesday, January 31, 2006

Combination

Combination of Statistics and ScientificThousands of years ago, the Luo-shu and Hetu predicted the success of the harvest of each year. By the centre of Lok River, the ancient people found the pattern of incidents of each crop. After a few thousands of years, people found the old records of incidents were accurate; they pass their knowledge to their followers.
The basic theory of feng shui is to utilize the 5 elements and Bagua theories. The 5 elements are Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth. Bagua consists of 8 trigrams: Qian, Kun, Zhen, Xun, Li, Kan, Dui and Gen. The combination of them could deduce the things to occur later in a house, a region or anywhere on Earth.

Postmodernism

Postmodernism The Getty Center in Los Angeles, allegedly an articulation of feng shui, though there is little evidence.The famous Bank of China Tower on Hong Kong Island, a blade-like design by I.M. Pei (not a feng shui adept), was supposedly a deliberate curse upon the Government House and the former British administration. No updated version of this fable exists to explain effects on the current occupants.
In fact, the Citigroup building which sits right next to the Bank of China Tower is a direct target of its blade like design, in theory severing all the good chi. The architects of the Citigroup building therefore designed it with a curved facade in order to shield and deflect the negative elements eminating from the neighboring Bank of China building.
Disneyland Hong Kong applied feng shui to the layout of the park.
Architects and landscape designers around the world are increasingly asked to include feng shui principles in their designs, even in places that do not have significant Asian populations. Regardless of the country of practice, businesses generally use feng shui to increase sales and boost morale. Homeowners may apply it as interior decorating or during the design and construction of a home.
The interest in feng shui principles has apparently accelerated in recent years with young designers' increased knowledge of microclimates, green building techniques, the threat of global warming, E.O. Wilson's biophilia hypothesis, and as a design reaction to the "inhuman" spaces of Modernism.
The Cheung Kong Tower as one of the famous building in Hong Kong, which had been reviewed by Li Ka Shing, feng shui consultant. The building inside is totally in green and the major entrance is toward the east direction that the feng shui specialist believes would bring more wealth to the Li Ka Shing family in the soil of Hong Kong.

More recents times

Feng Shui in More Recent TimesDuring the early 1800s feng shui was introduced to the U.S. with the first Chinese immigrants. The notorious Four Corners section of New York, which was then a Chinese ghetto, featured gambling houses and other structures that incorporated feng shui, as did the Chinatowns in San Francisco and Los Angeles. In 19th-century Australia, the Joss House was built using feng shui. It has also been practiced by western "hongs" or trading companies to satisfy local business communities and to encourage luck in business.
Since the mid-20th century, feng shui has been illegal in the PRC, primarily because Mao Zedong (who had studied feng shui) denounced many practitioners' propensity for fraud. Other reasons have been suggested, which is why a department of the Chinese government was assigned to oversee its use. Ole Bruun's fieldwork has shown that during the Cultural Revolution, most feng shui practitioners had their books burnt, were persecuted and jailed, and underwent extreme privations for their knowledge of ancient Chinese culture. Very few were willing — or had the means to — leave the country.
Feng shui is still used in rural China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. It is not well-known among younger Chinese in the People's Republic of China (PRC). However, the rapid modernization of China has led to feng shui becoming a worthy subject for scholarly inquiry at Chinese universities. As Chinese scholars increasingly work with their counterparts in the rest of the world, a new picture is emerging of the history and application of this ancient ceremonial custom.

Archaeology

ArchaeologyIn 1978 researchers presented evidence at a Zhouyi conference that the Hetu and Luoshu, the two most-recognizable diagrams related to feng shui, are actually 3-D star maps. The estimated date for the astronomy is at least 6000 BCE. A page in "The Astronomical Phenomena" (Tien Yuan Fa Wei) compiled by Bao Yunlong in the 13th century also shows the Luoshu as a star diagram. The original trigrams of the Yijing, known popularly as the eight digrams or "Bagua," seem to be included in these maps.
Traditional Feng Shui began as an interplay of construction and astrology. An early Yangshao village at Banpo (c. 4800 BCE) had its cemetery at the north and its dwellings built on a north-south axis. The dwellings were oriented to catch the mid-afternoon sun at its warmest a few days after the winter solstice. (Some tribes in southern China still refer to this month as "House-building Month.") Professor David Pankenier and his associates performed retrospective computation on the Chinese sky at the time of the Banpo dwellings to show that the asterism Yingshi (Lay out the Hall, in the Warring States period and early Han era) corresponded to the sun's location at this time. (This housing alignment persisted throughout the Neolithic through the history of China; it is used today whenever space permits.)
The asterism Yingshi originally was Xuangong (“Dark Palace”), a name that indicated winter and the northern sky. It was a star-landmark of the spring equinox and winter solstice from c. 7000 BCE to c. 3900 BCE. Ding (α Peg) was the leading-star. Yingshi was used to indicate the appropriate time and orientation for a capital city, according to the Shijing; by the time of the Zhou the asterism had been used to orient homes, villages, and capital cities for three thousand years. Most capital cities of China, including Beijing, follow this design. The rules for capital cities and other habitations can be found in the Zhou-era Kaogong ji (Manual of Crafts). Rules for builders were codified in the Lu ban jing (Carpenter's Manual).
A grave at Puyang (3000 BCE) that contains mosaics of the Dragon and Tiger constellations and Beidou (Big Dipper) is similarly oriented along a north-south axis, and it includes the classical "heaven-round, earth-square" design applied to other buildings in China at varying periods, and was used in the design of the Temple of Heaven in Beijing.
At Lamao, an excavation recently yielded an artifact (c. 3000 BCE) that researchers claim to be marked with the Twelve Branches commonly used for calendars and feng shui calculations. Other markings appear to be constellations of the time.
An excavated grave at Lingjiatan contained a jade plaque (c. 3000 BCE) with a compass design. (Similar markings were also found on pottery from the Taihu region.) According to researchers, the shape of the jade denotes the Earth. The center square is the sun. The larger circle is the movement of Earth through the seasons. The “arrows” point to cardinal and intercardinal directions. Historian Li Xueqin links this artifact with the liuren astrolabe, the ancestor of the shi and the Luopan.
At Taosi the traditional home of King Yao, an observatory (c. 2400 BCE) with 12 sighting windows may have been used as mentioned in Yaodian (in the Shijing) and Wudibenji (in the Shiji), as Yao assigned astronomers to observe sunrise, sunset, and evening stars in culmination. According to modern astronomers, Yao's pronouncement of the four major constellations is consistent with the astronomy for the age of the observatory. By tradition Yao is linked with the practice of feng shui.
The tombs of Shang kings and their consorts at the cemetery of Xibeigang near Anyang lie on a north-south axis, ten degrees east of due north. The Xia and Shang palaces at Erlitou are also on a north-south axis, slightly west of true north. These orientations were obtained by astronomy; the magnetic compass or zhinan zhen was not invented until the later Han era.
Feng shui devices in the late Qin and early Han eras consist of two-sided boards with astronomical sightlines. Liuren astrolabes have been unearthed intact from Qin-era tombs at Wangjiatai and Zhoujiatai. These devices date between 278 BC and 209 BC. The earliest feng shui manual unearthed by archaeologists has been dated to the Qin era.
Today feng shui practitioners can select from three types of Luopan: San He (the so-called "form school", although the compass name means "Triple Combination"), San Yuan (the so-called "compass school", although the compass name actually refers to time), and the Zong He that combines the other two.

Feng Shui

OverviewTraditional ("classical," "authentic") feng shui is a Chinese ethnoscience that addresses the design and layout of cities, villages, dwellings, and buildings. The construction of graves and tombs also includes feng shui, but the rules for dwellings differ from those applied to "yin houses" (houses of the dead). Feng shui was labeled geomancy by 19th-century Christian missionaries to China; however, geomancy and feng shui differ widely in their scope, aims, and means. The name Feng Shui literally means "Wind and Water". The Book of Burial says "The Qi disperses with the Wind and collects on the boundaries of Water". Hence the name.
Traditional feng shui uses a specialized compass called a Luopan, and a comprehensive array of calculations involving mathematical iterations. It has foundation texts, core theories and methods, and an impressive past based on archaeological discoveries and the work of archeoastronomers.
Traditional Feng Shui schools can be segregated in to 2 broad groups: San He (Three Harmonies) and San Yuan (Three Cycles). The former emphasizes on the effect of surrounding landforms while the latter gives more weight to the factor of time.
The New Age versions — Black Hat Sect, Pyramid Feng Shui, Fuzion, Intuitive, etc. — do not share this history. These offshoots typically use "intuitive" methods with concepts from the 19th-century Spiritualist movement, and self-help techniques and affirmations, along with modern interior design. For example, the Black Hat Sect version of Feng shui, which began in 1960s Hong Kong (and incorporated as a U.S. church in 1986), explains feng shui as the art of arranging objects within a home to obtain an optimum flow of qi. In traditional feng shui, the objects within a structure are of lesser significance than the position of a building and its local environment — especially microclimates. It is believed by many that individuals using New Age methods seek to profit from naïve consumers by explaining New Age versions as "classical" or traditional" feng shui. Yet, according to recent fieldwork in rural China by Ole Bruun, qi flow is rarely a concern in traditional feng shui

Home arts

The Home Arts and Industries Association was an organisation that functioned as a precursor to the Art Workers Guild in the development of the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain. It was founded in 1884 by Eglantyne Louisa Jebb who was inspired by an initiative of Charles Godfrey Leland in Philadelphia. Another leading member was the designer Mary Fraser Tytler. The organisation sought to revive traditional rural crafts which were threatened by the mechanisation of production and by increasing urbanization. In conformity with the thinking of John Ruskin and with Arts and Crafts philosophy, supporters believed that flourishing traditional crafts helped sustain rural communities and provided workers with far more personal satisfaction than was possible for factory workers. The Association funded schools and organised marketing opportunities for craftspeople.

Activities of the trade

Activities of the tradeHistorically, the painter and decorator was responsible for the mixing of the paint; keeping a ready supply of pigments, oils, thinners, driers and sundries. The painter would use his experience to determine a suitable mixture dependent upon the nature of the job. This role has reduced almost to zero as modern paint manufacturing techniques and architect specifications have created a reliance on brand label products.
Larger firms operating within the trade were generally capable of performing many painting or decoration services, from signwriting, to the gilding of objects or even the finishing or re-finishing of furniture.

Tools of trade

Tools of the tradeThe brush and the roller are the tools most readily associated with the painter. Recent advances in manufacture have led to a standardisation of brushes, with many older brushes falling from fashion.
The ground brush, also known as a pound brush, was a round or elliptical brush bound by wire, cord or metal. They were generally heavy to use, and required considerable usage to break them in. These brushes were predominantly used in the days before modern paint manufacture techniques; hand mixed paints requiring more working to create the finish. These brushes still have use in applying primer; the brushes are useful in working the primer into the grain of the wood. Pound brushes required an even breaking in to create even bevel on both sides of the brush minimising the formation of a point which would render the brush useless.
Sash tools were smaller brushes, similar to a ground brush, and used mainly for cutting in sash or glazing bars found on windows.
Sash tools and ground brushes generally required bridling before use, and a painter's efficiency in this skill was generally used as a guide to their overall ability. Both these brushes have largely been superseded by the modern varnish brush.
Varnish brushes are the common flat brushes available today, used for painting as well as varnishing. Brushes intended for varnishing typically have a bevelled edge.
Distemper brushes, used for applying distemper, were best made of pure bristle and bound by copper bands to prevent rust damage. Styles differed across the world, with flat nailed brushes popular in the North of England, a two knot brush (a brush with two ovular heads) popular in the South of England, and three knot brushes or flat head brushes preferred elsewhere. In the United States distemper brushes were known as calcimine, kalsomine or calsomine brushes, each term being the U.S. variant of distemper.
Fitches are smaller brushes, either ovular or flat and 1 inch wide, used in fine work such as to pick out the detail on a painted moulding.
Stipplers come in various shapes and sizes and are used to apply paint with a stippled effect.
A duster or jamb brush was used to dust the area to be painted before work commenced.
Limewash brushes were large brushes with a triangular head used to apply limewash.
Stencil brushes, similar in style to a shaving brush and used for the purpose of stencilling walls or in the creation of hand-made wallpapers.
Brushes are best stored in a purpose made brush keeper, a box on which a wire could be suspended: the wire would be threaded through the hole in a brushes handle so as to suspend the brush in a cleaning solution without allowing the brush to sit on the bottom of the container and thus cause spreading of the bristles. The solution would also prevent hardening of the brushes and oxidisation. These were generally rectangular and stored several brushes. A lid would enclose the brushes and keep them free from dust.

Painters

History of the tradeCave paintings, although primitive, are the earliest form of mural decoration known today. Whilst the purpose of these decorations can only be speculated upon, most theories assert a degree of skill involved in their creation, a skill which is carried through in the trade of the house painter.
In England, little is known of the trade and its structures before the late 1200s, at which point guilds began to form, amongst them the Painters Company and the Stainers Company. These two guilds eventually merged with the consent of the Lord Mayor of London in 1502, forming the Painter-Stainers Company. The guild standardised the craft and acted as a protector of the trade secrets, in 1599 asking Parliament for protection, which was eventually granted in a bill of 1606, which granted the trade protection from outside competition such as plasterers.
The Act legislated for a seven year apprenticeship, and also barred plasterers from painting, unless apprenticed to a painter, with the penalty for such painting being a fine of £5. The Act also enshrined a maximum daily fee of 16 old pence for their labour.
Enforcement of this Act by the Painter-Stainers Company was sought up until the early 1800s, with master painters gathering irregularly to decide the fees which a journeyman could charge, and also instigating an early version of a job centre in 1769, advertising in the London press a "house of call" system which allowed masters to advertise for journeymen and also for journeymen to advertise for work. The guild's power in setting the fee a journeyman could charge was eventually overturned by law in 1827, and the period after this saw the guild's power diminish, along with that of the other guilds; the guilds were superseded by trade unions, with the Operative United Painters' Union formed sometime around 1831.
In 1894 a national association formed, recreating itself in 1918 as the National Federation of Master Painters and Decorators of England and Wales, changing its name once again to the British Decorators Association before merging, in 2002, with the Painting & Decorating Federation to form the Painting & Decorating Association. The Construction Industry Joint Council, a body formed of both unions and business organisations, today has responsibility for the setting of pay levels.

On the television

On the television
In the UK and elsewhere, interior decoration has become a popular television format, with advocate programs including changing rooms (BBC) and Selling Houses (Channel 4). Famous interior designers include Linda Barker and Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen.
In the United States the TLC Network airs a popular program called Trading Spaces which has a format similar to the UK program Changing Rooms mentioned above. The Home & Garden Television and Discovery Home networks also both show many programs on interior design

Theme

ThemeA theme is a consistent idea used throughout a room to create a feeling of completeness. These themes often follow period styles. Examples of this are Louis XV or Art Deco. The evolution of interior design themes has now grown to include themes not necessarily consistent with a specific period style allowing the mixing of pieces from different periods. Each element should contribute to form or function or both and maintain a consistent standard of quality and combine to create the desired design.
Something to Avoid in Your DecoratingSince interior decoration (interior decorating) communicates, not only to the ones who live in a home, but also to guests, it is important to avoid unintended messages.
Artwork is key to human expression. First painted or scribed on cave walls, nearly everyone carefully chooses art work that complements their lives, art work that offers a sense of calm or challenge, encourages one to dream or relax, all depending on the mood one wishes to convey. Artwork is about opening up the home, not with clear messages, but to imagination--artful ambiguity that fosters introspection and wonder, sometimes humor. Each room can build on the inherent theme, e.g., the dining room -- a place of eating and celebration, and artwork would be chosen to complement that theme.
One of the key mistakes, one of the "don'ts" to avoid, is choosing as artwork - framed photographs of oneself or of one's spouse, and hanging them on walls around the home. Hanging pictures of oneself and spouse turns the home into a shrine dedicated to You, the inhabitants. You unwittingly convey self-centeredness, suggesting that narcissism is alive and well in your home and there is little room for anyone else. It suggests that no matter what you may say, guests are actually unwelcome! It is better to offer photos of yourself as gifts to ones who love you than to display them in your home!
A few photographs of children, grandchildren, and other family members can be appropriate, but even these should be few in number. Preferably place them or hang them in a single room such as a den or bedroom hallway, not throughout the home. Often the wall next to a staircase or an upstairs corridor that connects bedrooms is a good choice for your personal and family photos. Additionally, a photo album can be left out on a table underneath hung photos for those who wish to see more

Interior decoration

Interior decoration is the art of decorating a room so it looks good, is easy to use, and functions well with the existing architecture. The goal of interior decoration is to provide a certain "feel" for the room; it encompasses applying wallpaper, painting walls and other surfaces, choosing furniture and fittings, such as light fixtures, and providing other decorations for the area such as paintings and sculptures.
Interior decorating is done professionally by interior decorators. It is considered a design field.
There is a distinct difference between interior decorating and interior design. Interior decorating is generally focused on finishes, such as wallpaper, paint, window coverings, and furnishings. Interior design involves manipulating the [architectural]] integrity of the interior space as well as the creation of a lifestyle experience through the study of human behavior.
The role of the interior decorator evolved in the 18th century from the Parisian marchand-mercier and the upholder in London. In Paris, the guild system that had evolved since the late Middle Ages prohibited a craftsman from working with a material with which they had not undergone a formal apprenticeship. Only a marchand-mercier (a "merchant of goods") could fit Chinese porcelains with gilt-bronze handles and mounts, combine Japanese lacquer or Sevres porcelain plaques with marquetry and gilt-bronze mounts on furniture. An early marchand-mercier Gersaint, had his shop-sign painted by Watteau. The Rococo interior was taken out of the hands of the architect and the painter and put in charge of the marchand-mercier.
In London, a parallel is the rise of the "upholder," a member of the London Upholders' Company who increased his design competence from providing upholstery and textiles and the fittings for funerals, to become responsible for the management of the entire interior. In the great London furniture-making partnerships, a cabinet-maker is usually paired with an upholder: Vile and Cobb, Ince and Mayhew, Chippendale and Rannie or Haig.
Palladian architects like William Kent or Matthew Brettingham might provide designs for walls that would be executed by joiners, stuccoists, painters and upholders but often their designs were limited to mantelpieces and monumental side tables, which were considered part of the immovable decor. The neoclassical architect Robert Adam was prepared to design every detail of his interiors if the client wanted, down to the doorknobs and fire-irons. Sir William Chambers designs for furnishings are often underestimated. James Wyatt 's designs for furniture were gathered into an album, perhaps in preparation for an engraved publication. The French marchand-mercier Dominique Daguerre moved to London in 1788 and was responsible for interiors for the Prince Regent and worked with the architect Henry Holland.
In the 1830s, interior decorators were responsible for the revival of interest in Gothic and Rococo styles in England. By the later 19th century, some firms set themselves apart as "art furnishers".
Modern interior decorators began with Lenygon and Morant in London, Charles Alavoine and Jeanselme in Paris, and Herter Brothers (from 1864) and Elsie de Wolfe and Ogden Codman in New York.
Other early interior decorators:
Syrie Maugham Although most professional interior designers of today attend accredited interior design schools and pass nationally recognized competency examinations, many of the most famous designers and decorators during the 20th Century had no formal training: Sister Parish, Mark Hampton, Stephen Chase, Mario Buatta, John Saladino, and many others were trend-setting innovators in the worlds of design and decoration

Decorative arts

The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. The field includes furniture, furnishings, interior design, and architecture. The decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the fine or high arts (or just art), namely, painting, drawing, photography, and large-scale sculpture. Some distinguish between decorative and fine art based on functionality, intended purpose, importance, status as a unique creation, or single artist production.

Stadium seating

Stadium seating is a technique used in movie theaters to allow more guests to see the movie screen with less blockage than traditional seating. Like seating in a football or baseball stadium, stadium seating in theaters is usually a 30 degree slope stepped upwards from the bottom of the theater, as opposed to the approximately 15 degree gentle slope in traditional theaters.
There has been some criticism towards stadium seating because it usually isn't possible for disabled people in wheelchairs to climb them. To reduce the problem, theaters with stadium seating generally mark the row at walk-in level for disabled patrons. This row is more open than those above or below it and includes empty spaces for wheelchairs.

Hutch

Hutch can refer to any of the following:
A form of furniture A type of cage utilized primarily for housing domestic rabbits A character in the television series Starsky & Hutch Hutch, a popular musician in the 1930s Hutch, a cellular phone service provider in India Hutch is an act of avoidance. Example: Pulling a Hutch, means either avoiding a family party, or avoiding drinking beer.

Door furniture

Door furniture refers to any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance. It is named by analogy to street furniture.
Design of door furniture is an issue to disabled persons who might have difficulty opening or using some kinds of door, and to specialists in Interior design as well as those
Decorative door in Florence, Italy.usability professionals which often take their didactic examples from door furniture design and use.
Items of door furniture include:
fingerplate keyhole lock doorknob (or doorhandle) door knocker thumb latch hinge pull handle letter plate (or letter box) peephole or wide-angle door viewer door stop escutcheon bell push Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Door_furniture"

ottoman

An ottoman is a piece of furniture, a padded, upholstered seat without arms, often used as a stool or footrest.
Also known as a hassock or pouffe. In the United Kingdom, ottomans are usually hollow and can be used as blanket boxes. According to the Encyclopedia of Furniture by Joseph Aronson, the Ottoman is defined as an "Upholstered seat or bench having neither back nor arms; so named after the Turkish influence in the early 18th century

Monday, January 30, 2006

Types of bed

Types of bed

There are many varieties of bed:

* An adjustable bed is a bed that can be adjusted to a number of different positions
* An air bed uses an air-inflated mattress, sometimes connected to an electric air pump and having firmness controls.
* A bunk is a bed used in a confined space.
* A bunk bed is two or more beds one atop the other.
* A chest bed is a platform bed with drawers and storage compartments built in underneath.
* A cot is a small bed (called a crib in American English) specifically for babies and infants. A cot can also refer to a simple, temporary, portable bed used by armies and large organizations in times of crisis.
* A daybed is an armless couch that is used as a seat by day and as a bed by night.
* A futon is a traditional style of Japanese bed that is also available in a larger Western style.
* A hammock is a piece of suspended fabric.
* A Manjaa is traditional Punjabi bed made of tied ropes bordered by a wooden frame.
* A Murphy bed is a bed that can hinge into a wall or cabinet to save space.
* A pallet is a thin, lightweight mattress.
* A platform bed is a mattress resting on a solid, flat raised surface, either free-standing or part of the structure of the room.
* A sofabed is a bed that is stored inside a sofa.
* A trundle bed is a bed usually stored beneath a twin bed.
* A waterbed is a bed/mattress combination where the mattress is filled with water.

Other European sizes


Extra Small Single
0.75 m × 2 m (29½ in × 78¾ in)
Small Single
0.8 m × 2 m (31½ in × 78¾ in)
Large Single
1 m × 2 m (39½ in × 78¾ in)

Other Australian sizes

Other Australian sizes

Extra Long Single
36 in × 80 in (0.9 m × 2 m)
King Single
41 in × 80 in (1.05 m × 2.05 m)
Three Quarter
48 in × 75 in (1.2 m × 1.9 m)

Other UK sizes

Other UK sizes

Small Single
30 in × 75 in (0.75 m × 1.9 m)
Super Single
41 in × 75 in (1.05 m × 1.9 m)
Three Quarter
48 in × 75 in (1.2 m × 1.9 m)

Other U.S. sizes

Other U.S. sizes

Twin Extra Long
39 in × 80 in (1 m × 2.05 m)
This size is fairly popular in college dormitories.
Three Quarter
48 in × 75 in (1.2 m × 1.9 m)
This size is considered obsolete by the major manufacturers.
Olympic Queen
66 in × 80 in (1.7 m × 2.05 m)
California Queen
60 in × 84 in (1.5 m × 2.15 m)
Eastern King
76 in × 80 in (2 m × 2.05 m)
This is the same as a U.S. King.
California King
72 in × 84 in (1.85 m × 2.15 m)
This is, by far, the standard king size on the West Coast of the United States, and is sometimes called the West Coast King or WC King.

Bed sizes

Bed sizes

Most countries have a standard set of four sizes of mattress. While the Double size appears to be standard among English speaking countries, based on the imperial measurement of 4 ft 6 in by 6 ft 3 in, the sizes for other bed types tend to vary. The European sizes differ; they are based on the metric system.

A king-sized bed differs from the other sizes in implementation, as it is not common to have a king-sized box spring; rather, two smaller box-springs are used under a king-sized mattress. On a U.S. Standard or "Eastern" King, the boxsprings are identical in size to a Twin Extra-Long.

bed

A bed is a piece of furniture or location primarily used or intended for sleeping upon, but also commonly used for sexual activities, relaxing, sitting, and reading.

Beds come in a wide array of shapes and sizes. Early beds were little more than piles of straw or some other natural materials. An important change was raising them off the ground, to avoid drafts, dirt, and pests.

To make beds more comfortable the top layer is frequently a mattress. Originally these were bags of straw for most people and filled with feathers for the wealthy. Eventually new fillings such as cotton and artificial fillers became common. In modern times most mattresses use springs, solid foam, water, or air.

At the top of the mattress, to provide greater support for the head, most people use a pillow. Also used is some form of covering blanket to provide warmth to the sleeper, often bed sheets, a quilt, or a duvet.

The bed frame may simply be made of wood or metal, but many also use springs. Most expensive and bulky, but also strong and comfortable are box springs, a large mattress-sized box containing wood and springs. A valance may be used to make the bed frame match the rest of the bedding.

Aquarium furniture

Aquarium furniture refers to the various ornaments and functional items in an aquarium.

Ornamental aquarium furniture is often kitsch: popular examples include ceramic mermaids, 'sunken' ships and castles, and the ever-popular (but curiously misplaced) "No Fishing" sign.

Examples of functional aquarium furniture would include devices for removing algae from the glass (either a razor or a scouring pad, attached to the glass by a magnetism), airstones, water filters, water heaters, and food dispensers.

Aquarium furniture may also refer to an item of (regular) furniture that features an aquarium in its design.

Outdoor advertising and street furniture

Outdoor advertising and street furniture

* Posters are a part of out-of-home media (also referred to as OOH). The presentation of backlit posters is done in display boxes or street furniture components like mega-displays or billboards. To install these street furniture components on public ground, city councils have to agree. To get these permissions (Europe, Asia and part of the US) services and fees are offered to the cities by the outdoor advertisers.

* In Europe there is a heavy competition for public spots to do advertising in different poster formats since these spots generate high contact figures – means many people can possibly remember a presented advertising message on a major road or square.

* The presentation of this advertising has to fit in the overall public planning rules of cities and their architecture. These requirements lead to interesting design approaches for poster presentation in different formats.

* Street furniture families were designed to fit these needs. Over the years they were completed with additional components like restrooms and automatic toilet facilities and kiosks to name a few.

* To finance this infrastructure long term contracts (10 to 15 years) are signed between cities and outdoor advertising companies.

* Cities are often put in a situation to decide on new concepts when they are not familiar with the issues, since new contracts occur only very seldom. This knowledge gap is closed by a special advisor - the street furniture report.

* This advisor gives cities some independent ideas how to act in this surrounding instead of reacting since public ground can not be enlarged.

Other information

Other information

Street furniture itself has become as much a part of many nations' identities as dialects and national events, so much so that one can usually recognise the location by their design; famous examples of this include:

* The red telephone boxes of Britain
* The residential post boxes of the United States
* and, The streetlamps and metro entrances of Paris.

The Tiergarten park in Berlin has a collection of antique streetlamps from around the world, both gas and electric.

General descriptions

General descriptions

* A bench is essentially a chair made for more than one person, usually found in the central part of any settlement (such as plazas and parks). They are often provided by the local councils or contributors to serve as a place to rest and admire the view. Armrests in between are sometimes provided to prevent people lying down and/or to prevent people from sitting too close to someone who likes to keep some distance.

* Bollards are posts, short poles, or pillars, with the purpose of preventing the movement of vehicles onto sidewalks or grass etc.

* Post boxes, or mail boxes, are found throughout the world, and have a variety of forms: round pillar style found in Japan and the U.K. (the two feature a difference in that the Japanese version has a round lid while the U.K. version is flat); rectangular blue boxes in the United States; red and yellow boxes with curved tops in Australia, some on poles.

* Phone boxes or telephone booths are prominent in most cities around the world, and while ranging drastically in the amount of cover they offer users, e.g. many only cover the phone itself while others are full booths, are instantly recognisable. The wide-spread use of mobile phones has resulted in a decrease in their numbers.

* Streetlamps are designed to illuminate the surrounding area at night, serving not only as a deterrent to criminals but more importantly to allow people to see where they're going. The colour of streetlamps' bulbs differ, but generally are white or yellow.

* Traffic lights (or traffic signals) usually include three colours: green to represent "go", amber to inform drivers that the colour will alternate shortly and red to tell drivers to stop. They are generally mounted on poles or gantries or hang from wires.

* Direction signs tell the reader the way to a location, although the sign's information can be represented in a variety of ways from that of a diagram to written instructions. Direction signs are usually mounted on poles. Recently, illumination has started to be added in order to aid night-time users.

* Public lavatories allow pedestrians the opportunity to use restroom facilities, either for free or for a per-use fee

street furniture

street furniture is a collective term for objects and pieces of equipment installed on streets and roads for various purposes, including benches, bollards, post boxes, phone boxes, streetlamps, street lighting, traffic lights, traffic signs, direction signs, bus stops, Grit bins, tram stops, taxi stands, outside lavatories, fountains and memorials, and waste receptacles. An important consideration in the design of street furniture is how it affects road safety.

Bench may refer to several things:

Bench may refer to several things:

* A long backless seat, typically used for sitting at an outdoor table for casual eating.
* A very wide chair for seating multiple people, as might be seen in a park or on a porch.
* A piece of weight training equipment, often very similar to the above "wide backless chair": a bench (weight training).
* A verb meaning "to perform a bench press movement", usually using the above piece of weight training equipment.
* A place of work — a workbench consisting of a table and perhaps places to keep an arrangement of tools and materials. A bench upon which work of a specific nature may take place eg. a woodworking bench. Jewellers' benches may take stereotyped forms and arrangements depending upon the country of origin, hence an Italian bench, German bench, etc.
* The place where judges sit in a court, or metonymously a panel of judges or the office of a judge;
* The seats provided for Members in Parliament, used in various metonymous constructions such as back-bencher (a junior MP who sits on the back benches) and cross bench;
* In certain sports (especially basketball), resting players sit on the bench, and in common usage, to be "benched" means to be removed from a game.
* The Bench language (Bench-non), spoken in southeastern Ethiopia.
* In surveying and civil engineering, a bench is a landform consisting of a long strip of land at constant height in an otherwise sloped area. It may be natural but usually refers to artificial earthworks (c.f. benchmark, q.v. berm).
* Bench is also the name of a chain of retail clothing stores in the Philippines.

History

History

The couch was originally an Arabian ruler's throne and has existed since antiquity. In Roman society the couch was found in the dining room, known as the 'triclinum'. Three couches would be arranged around a low table and the men would recline while eating (but the women sat in normal chairs).

Originally it was an elitist piece of furniture and it was not until industrialization that the couch became an indispensable item of furniture in middle and lower class households. Throughout its history it has often been an object of derision, considered a variety of things from decadent to conformist.

The couch is often associated with Freudian psychoanalysis. Freud originally used the couch as a tool to aid his hypnosis of the patient. However when he moved on from hypnosis to stream-of-consciousness discourse as his dominant mode of analysis with the development of the interpretation of dreams, he still held on to the couch. He justified this with the need to limit the transference between psychoanalyst and analysand. Thus, the couch proved particularly useful because it limits the visibility of the analyst.

Today the couch is invariably linked to both domestic family life and television culture. It is often positioned in relation to the television set in a living room and for siesta. It has spawned social phenomena such as the couch potato, a person who spends a lot of time watching the television. The couch has also become the central prop for many TV sitcoms and soap operas. This symbiosis, through which the couch has shifted from the private to the public sphere, has been satirically depicted in popular culture, in television series such as Married... with Children, The Simpsons and Beavis and Butt-head.

couch sofa

A couch, also known as a sofa, settee, lounge or chesterfield is an item of furniture for the comfortable seating of more than one person.

Couches are usually to be found in the living room or the lounge. They come in a variety of textiles and in leather. A typical couch seats two to three people and has an armrest on either side. Many different types of couch exist: popular types include the divan, the chaise longue, the canapé or the ottoman. Also, to save space, some sofas double as beds (sofa-bed, daybed or futon).

There are other types, including two-seater, three-seater, corner and chaise longue. A smaller version of the couch which may only comfortably seat two people is more commonly known as a loveseat.

A three-piece suite is composed of three couch pieces (generally, a two- or three-seater and two armchairs).

cupboard

A cupboard is a type of cabinet, often made of wood, used indoors to store household objects such as food and crockery. A cupboard specialized for the storage of guns is an armoire, though the word armoire today typically refers to any tall standalone cabinet and a cabinet for holding guns would simply be a gun cabinet. As the name suggests, this piece of furniture was originally a simple board or table on which to place cups - recorded use of such a name dates back to at least the Middle Ages. For the last few centuries, "cupboard" has referred to a storage area enclosed by doors.

The storage of foodstuffs in cupboards was a major advance in public health as it protected foods from insects and vermin. Furthermore, in hot countries the temperature inside a cupboard is likely to be cooler than outside. This, and the dark interior, will preserve food longer than if it were stored outside.

chest

A chest is one of the oldest forms of furniture. It is a rectangular structure with four walls and a liftable lid, for storage. The interior space may be subdivided.

A cassone is a kind of carved or painted chest associated with late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. Cassone were often used to carry the dowry goods in a marriage ceremony.

In Medieval and early Renaissance times in Europe low chests were often used as benches while taller chests were used as side tables. By placing a chest on the side on any kind of rough table, the inner surface of its lid could be used as a proper writing surface while the interior could house writing implements and related materials, as was the case with the Bargueno desk of Spain. Many early Portable desks were stacked chests, with the top one having its lid on the side, to serve as a writing surface when opened.

Wardrobe

Wardrobe

Things commonly known as Wardrobe include:

* A large cabinet used for the storage of clothing; Traditionally, wardrobes were used in homes before built-in closets became popular. Wardrobes would normally stand on the floor, with two full length doors on the front that would swing open. Mirrors are often placed on the doors.
o Famous fictional wardrobes include the eponymous example in C. S. Lewis' book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, a gateway to the magical world of Narnia.
* The entire collection of clothing or costumes used by a person, or in a musical performance, play, film etc. If clothing fails to fulfill its intended purpose, especially that of protecting the wearer's modesty, the result may be termed a "wardrobe malfunction".
* The department in a theatrical company, film production unit, etc responsible for acquiring, maintaining, and distributing costumes and other clothing worn by actors and performers.

Library shelving

Library shelving

In the great public libraries of the 20th century the bookcases are often of iron, as in the British Museum where the shelves are covered with cowhide, or steel, as in the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., or of slate, as in the Fitzwilliam Library at Cambridge. For libraries where space is extremely tight there is yet another system usually called mobile shelving or high density storage. In such systems 12 or more bookcases are mounted on wheels which are integrated in floor level guide rails, in a space normally reserved for 4 or 6 bookcases. It is possible then to visit only two bookcase sides at a time, all the others being pressed close together. Because of the heavy weight of the books most of the systems are electrically powered or have some form of gearing and large wheels to move the bookcases about and create the necessary aisle at the right place. Because of the danger of tripping on the floor mounted rails or being squashed between bookcases these systems are normally reserved for closed stacks where users cannot enter.


Systems of arrangement

There are three systems of arranging bookcases: Flat against the wall; in stacks or ranges parallel to each other with merely enough space between to allow of the passage of a librarian; or in bays or alcoves where cases jut out into the room at right angles to the wall-cases. The stack system is suitable only for public libraries where economy of space is essential; the bay system is not only handsome but utilizes the space to great advantage. The library of the City of London at the Guildhall is a peculiarly effective example of the bay arrangement.


Literature on bookcases

The whole question of the construction and arrangement of bookcases was learnedly discussed in the light of experience by W. E. Gladstone in the Nineteenth Century for March 1890.

The Book on the Bookshelf by Henry Petroski also discusses the shelving of books in some detail.

See also Sympson the Joiner and the early glazed bookcases made for Samuel Pepys.

Designers and manufacturers

Designers and manufacturers

Both Chippendale and Sheraton made or designed great numbers of bookcases, mostly glazed with little lozenges encased in fretwork frames often of great charm and elegance. The alluring grace of some of Sheraton's satinwood bookcases has very rarely indeed been equalled. The French cabinetmakers of the same period were also highly successful with small ornamental cases. Mahogany, rosewood satinwood and even choicer exotic timbers were used; they were often inlaid with marquetry and mounted with chased and gilded bronze. Dwarf bookcases were frequently finished with a slab of choice marble at the top.

Oldest bookcases

Oldest bookcases

The oldest bookcases in England are those in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, which were placed in position in the last year or two of the 16th century; in that library are the earliest extant examples of shelved galleries over the flat wall-cases. Long ranges of book-shelves are necessarily somewhat severe in appearance, and many attempts have been made by means of carved cornices and pilasters to give them a more riant appearance--attempts which were never so successful as in the hands of the great English cabinetmakers of the second half of the 18th century.

History of the bookcase

History of the bookcase

When books were written by hand and were excessively scarce, they were kept in small coffers which the wealthy carried about with them on their journeys. As manuscript volumes accumulated in the religious houses or in regal palaces, they were stored upon shelves or in cupboards, and it is from these cupboards that the bookcase of to-day directly descends. At a somewhat later date the doors were discarded, and the evolution of the bookcase made one step forward. Even then, however, the volumes were not arranged in the modern fashion. They were either placed in piles upon their sides, or if upright, were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. The band of leather, vellum or parchment which closed the book was often used for the inscription of the title, which was thus on the fore-edge instead of on the back.

It was not until the invention of printing had greatly cheapened books that it became the practice to write the title on the back and place the edges inwards. Early bookcases were usually of oak, which is still deemed to be the most appropriate wood for a stately library.

Art Deco

Art Deco derived its name from the World's fair held in Paris in 1925, formally titled the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, which showcased French luxury goods and reassured the world that Paris remained the international center of style after World War I. Art Deco did not originate with the Exposition; it was a major style in Europe from the early 1920s, though it did not catch on in the U.S. until about 1928, when it quickly modulated into the Streamline Moderne during the 1930s, the decade with which Americanized Art Deco is most strongly associated today.

Paris remained the center of the high end of Art Deco design, epitomized in furniture by Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann, the best-known of Art Deco furniture designers and perhaps the last of the traditional Parisian ébénistes, and Jean-Jacques Rateau, the firm of Süe et Mare, the screens of Eileen Gray, wrought iron of Edgar Brandt, metalwork and lacquer of Swiss-Jewish Jean Dunand, the glass of René Lalique and Maurice Marinot, clocks and jewelry by Cartier.

The term Art Deco was coined during the Exposition of 1925 but did not receive wider usage until it was re-evaluated in the 1960s. Its practitioners were not working as a coherent community. It is considered to be eclectic, being influenced by a variety of sources, to name a few:

* Early work from the Wiener Werkstätte; functional industrial design
* "Primitive" arts of Africa, Egypt, or Aztec Mexico
* Ancient Greek sculpture and pottery design of the less naturalistic "archaic period"
* Léon Bakst's sets and costumes for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
* Fractionated, crystalline, facetted form of decorative Cubism and Futurism
* Fauve color palette
* Severe forms of Neoclassicism: Boullée, Schinkel
* Everything associated with Jazz, Jazz Age or "jazzy"
* Animal motifs and forms; tropical foliage; ziggurats; crystals; "sunbursts"; stylized fountain motifs
* Lithe athletic "modern" female forms; flappers' bobbed haircuts
* "Machine age" technology such as the radio and skyscraper.


Corresponding to these influences, the Art Deco is characterised by use of materials such as aluminium, stainless steel, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin, and zebraskin. The bold use of zigzag and stepped forms, and sweeping curves (unlike the sinuous curves of the Art nouveau), chevron patterns, and the sunburst motif. Some of these motifs were ubiquitous- for example the sunburst motif was used in such varied contexts as a lady's shoe, a radiator grille, the auditorium of the Radio City Music Hall and the spire of the Chrysler Building. Art Deco was an opulent style and this opulence is attributed as a reaction to the forced austerity during the years of World War I. Art Deco was a popular style for interiors of cinema theatres and ocean liners such as the Ile de France and Normandie.

A parallel movement following close behind, the Streamline or Streamline Moderne, was influenced by manufacturing and streamlining techniques arising from science and mass production- shape of bullet, liners, etc., where aerodynamics are involved. Once the Chrysler Air-Flo design of 1933 was successful, "streamlined" forms began to be used even for objects such as pencil sharpeners and refrigerators. In architecture, this style was characterised by rounded corners, used predominantly for buildings at road junctions.

Some historians see Art Deco as a type of or early form of Modernism.

Art Deco slowly lost patronage in the West after reaching mass production, where it began to be derided as gaudy and presenting a false image of luxury. Eventually the style was cut short by the austerities of World War II. In colonial countries such as India, it became a gateway for Modernism and continued to be used well into the 1960s. A resurgence of interest in Art Deco came with graphic design in the 1980s, where its association with film noir and 1930s glamour led to its use in ads for jewelry and fashion. This is still the image of Art Deco held in the minds of most Americans.

Furniture

Furniture is the collective term for the movable objects which support the human body (seating furniture and beds), provide storage, and hold objects on horizontal surfaces above the ground. Storage furniture is used to hold or contain smaller objects such as clothes, tools, books, and household goods. Furniture can be a product of artistic design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. Domestic furniture works, in conjunction with furnishings such as clocks and lighting, to create comfortable and convenient interior spaces. Many types of furniture contain one or more drawers and/or small doors which can be opened. Also, some furniture items can have shelves.

round table

A round table is one which has no "head" and no "sides", and therefore no one person sitting at it is given a privileged position and all are treated as equals. The idea stems from the Arthurian legend about the Knights of the Round Table in Camelot.

Today, round tables are often used at conferences involving many parties. The most famous modern round table was the one used for talks between the Communist government and Solidarity in Poland in 1989; see: Polish Round Table Agreement. Hence, the term "round table" is also used figuratively to refer to a peaceful way of achieving a compromise solution.

table

A table is a piece of furniture composed of a horizontal surface and a base. It is often used to hold objects or food at a convenient or comfortable height.

A table can be used temporarily for objects such as food and eating utensils during a meal, cups for drinks, a book (especially a big one, that one can not easily keep in one's hands), a spread-out map, writing paper during writing, and anything that requires having several objects at hand, including various hobbies. Things may also be put more permanently on a table, e.g. a TV, computer, objects for decoration (including a cloth, usually arranged to lie flat on the top surface, and either hang near two ends vertically over two parallel edges of the table, or hang mostly vertical along all four edges of the table, with bunched folds hanging at the four corners of the table), etc. Table settings of food are laid out in a traditional arrangement.

For some tables the top surface can be adjusted in size, with a part that is foldable or can slide under the rest. Some tables are foldable for easy transport, e.g. for camping. Small tables in trains and planes may be fixed or foldable.

Traditionally, tables in Japan, called chabudai, are low, sometimes round tables, used to

Accessories

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

Standards and specifications

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

* chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
* chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
* leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
* seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
* seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Chair seats

Chair seats

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

* Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
* Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
* Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
* Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
* Metal seats of solid or open design
* Molded plastic
* Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

* Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
* Leather, may be tooled with a design
* Fabric, simple covering without support
* Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
* Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
* Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
* Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Arm rests

Arm rests

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests

Design and ergonomics

Design and ergonomics
.
Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Future desk evolution

Future desk evolution

The desk's working surface served as the inspiration for our present direct manipulation interface, which we usually know as the GUI, the graphical user interface or as the virtual desktop. An example of this is the recycle bin appearing on the microsoft desktop.

In a sense, the typical desk is becoming gradually virtual through a combination of the GUI and printouts, and is now expanding in size instead of shrinking, because of the exploitation of cubicle walls and of the theoretically infinite size of the GUI desktop. The term "paperless office" seems to have been finally discredited and integrations of future desk forms with future computer systems are usually discussed under the more neutral term of office of the future.

Impact of computers on desk forms

Impact of computers on desk forms

The biggest paper boom occurred in the last decades of the 20th century with the introduction of mainframe computer printers and personal computer printers. The modular nature of the personal computer and its printer and other peripherals gave a boost to the existing but recently invented ergonomic desk, which was adapted to the peculiar needs of computer users. The beginning of this paper boom gave birth to the concept of the "paperless office", in which all information would appear on computer monitors. There would be no need for paper since all documents would be perfectly organized and accessible on the computers. The exact opposite happened. As information work was shifted to computers, users constantly printed out what was on their screens because the computer monitors had a resolution which was much inferior to that of paper, and because monitors were too costly to occupy entire desks, like sheets of papers laid out for comparison and/or for "reminding" purposes.

Since this last paper boom again produced a rise in the number of office workers and rises in office space rent, the infamous cubicle desk became widely accepted in the USA as an economical way of putting more desk workers in the same space without actually shrinking the size of their working surfaces. The cubicle walls have become new homes for papers and other items once left on the horizontal desktop surface. Even computer monitor frames themselves are used to attach reminder notes and business cards.

Desks groaning under masses of paper

Desks groaning under masses of paper

A smaller boom in office work and desk production occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th with the introduction of smaller and cheaper electrical presses and efficient carbon papers coupled with the general acceptance of the typewriter. Steel desks were introduced to take heavier loads of paper and withstand the pounding meted out on the typewriters. The L-shaped desk became popular, with the "leg" being used as an annex for the typewriter.

Another big boom occurred after the Second World War with the spread of photocopying. Paperwork drove even higher the number of desk workers, whose work surface diminished in size as office rents rose, and the paper itself was moved more and more directly to filing cabinets or sent to records management centers, or transformed into microfilm, or both. Modular desks seating several co-workers close by became common. Even executive or management desks became mass-produced, built of cheap plywood or fiberboard covered with wood veneer, as the number of persons managing the white collar workers became even greater.

Classical desk forms

Classical desk forms

The desk forms we are familiar with in this beginning of the millennium were born mostly in the 17th and 18th centuries. The ergonomic desk of the last decades is the newest addition to a long list of desk forms, but in a way it is only a refinement of the mechanically complex drawing table or drafting table of the end of the 18th century.


Industrial-era desks

Refinements to those first desk forms were considerable through the 19th century, as steam-driven machinery made cheap wood-based paper possible in the last periods of the first phase of the industrial revolution. This produced a boom in the number of, or some might say the birth of, the white-collar worker. As these office workers grew in number, desks were mass-produced for them in large quantities, using newer, steam-driven woodworking machinery. This was the first sharp division in desk manufacturing. From then on, limited quantities of finely crafted desks have been constructed by master cabinetmakers for the homes and offices of the rich while the vast majority of desks were assembled rapidly by unskilled labor, from components turned out in batches by machine tools. Thus, age alone does not guarantee that an antique desk is a masterpiece, since this shift took place more than a hundred years ago.

More paper and more correspondence drove the need for more complex desks and more specialized desks, such as the rolltop desk which was a mass produced, slatted variant of the classical cylinder desk. It provided a relatively fast and cheap way to lock up the ever increasing flow of paper without having to file everything by the end of the day. Paper documents started leaving the desk as a "home", with the general introduction of filing cabinets. Correspondence and other documents were now too numerous to get enough attention to be rolled up or folded again, then summarized and tagged before being pigeonholed in a small compartment over or under the work surface of the desk. The famous Wooton desk and others were the last, monstrous manifestations of the dying "pigeonhole" era.

Early desks

Early desks

Desk forms might have existed in classical antiquity or in other ancient centers of civilization in the Middle East or Far East, but we have no specific proof. Medieval illustrations show the first pieces of furniture which seem to have been designed and constructed for the specific goals of reading and writing.

Before the invention of the movable type printing press in the 15th century, any reader was potentially a writer or publisher or both, since any book or other document had to be copied by hand. The desks were designed, consequentially, with slots and hooks for bookmarks as well as writing implements. The absence of regular movable type printing also influenced desk size and shape because of the bigger volumes required for manuscript documents. Desks of the period usually had massive structures.

Desks of the Renaissance and later eras had relatively slimmer structures, and more and more drawers as woodworking became more precise and cabinet-making became a distinct trade. It is often possible to find out if a table or other piece of furniture of those times was designed to be used as a desk by looking for a drawer with three small separations (one each for the ink pot, the blotter and the powder tray) and room for the pens.

desk

A desk is a furniture form and a class of table. It is often used in a work or office setting to read or write on, using simple implements like a pencil and paper or complicated ones like a computer. Desks often have one or more drawers.

The list of desk forms and types gives the most common desk variations.

Unlike a regular table, only one side of a desk is suitable to sit on, except for some unusual desks like a partners desk. Not all desks have the form of a table. For instance, an Armoire desk is a desk built within a large wardrobe-like cabinet usually having the height of a man or a woman. To many the ideal or generic concept of a desk is the pedestal desk, which is often called an executive desk. At one extreme in size one finds the Armoire desk, encased in a very large cabinet looking like a traditional wardrobe from the exterior, when the doors are closed. At the other end one finds the portable desk, which, in its smallest forms, is light enough to be placed on a lap or on small supports on a bed.

Wednesday, January 25, 2006

Tipos de colchones

Tipos de colchones


Colchón de muelles

Es el más habitual. Su núcleo consiste en una carcasa compuesta por muelles fabricados con alambre de hierro de un espesor de alrededor de dos milímetros. Estos se fijan en la parte superior e inferior a una varilla de contorno de acero. La carcasa se suele proteger mediante un manto de fibras a la que se puede añadir una plancha de espuma de poliuretano. En sus esquinas se encajan cantoneras de espuma para dotarle de mayor consistencia.

Sobre ella, se colocan las tapas. La tapa está compuesta por una tela de variado material y diseño (damasco, piqué, etcétera) que se acolcha con una o varias planchas de espuma de poliuretano o, más recientemente, de látex. A la postre, la firmeza del colchón dependerá de la altura de la carcasa así como del número y densidad de planchas amortiguadoras que contenga. Las platabandas laterales también se acolchan en la misma tela y se cosen a las tapas por medio de burletes. En las platabandas, se practican orificios o se insertan válvulas de ventilación que permiten la circulación del aire durante la noche.

El colchón se puede reforzar suplementando material (manto de fibras, plancha de espuma, etc.) en determinadas zonas. Así se hace ocasionalmente en el tercio lumbar y más raramente en la zona cervical y podal.

* Muelles bicónicos. Los muelles presentan una forma de doble cono (es decir, se estrechan por el centro) que se adaptan mejor al peso de las diferentes partes del cuerpo. Es la llamada carcasa tipo Bonell.
* Muelles cilíndricos. Los muelles tienen forma de cilindro. Suelen ir ensacados para evitar sonidos molestos a causa del rozamiento.
* Carcasa compacta. Se fabrica con alambre de hierro que atraviesa la estructura en forma de zigzag. A lo largo de todo el perímetro, se colocan muelles romboidales lo que confiere una mayor firmeza y rigidez al colchón.

colchon

Historia

Antiguamente, los colchones constaban de una funda rellena de materiales orgánicos como paja, lana, hojas, etc. que eran nido de pequeños insectos por lo que había que ventilarlos y airearlos periódicamente. Los colchones de lana fueron populares en Europa hasta bien entrado el siglo XX. En algunos países, existía la figura del colchonero que era un profesional que viajaba de pueblo en pueblo aireando, rellenando y ahuecando los colchones de lana.

En el siglo XVI se lanzó en Francia el colchón de aire que gozó de un limitado periodo de éxito al igual que en el siglo XVII en Londres. A principios del siglo XVII se lanzaron en el Reino Unido los primeros colchones de muelles. El problema es que al tratarse de muelles cilíndricos no se comprimían sino que se vencían hacia el frente y los laterales.

A mediados de la década de 1850 se comenzaron a fabricar, todavía de forma artesanal, muelles cónicos que facilitaban su compresión vertical. Uno de los colchones más populares en Estados Unidos fue lanzado en 1925 por el fabricante Zalmon Simmons y se denominó Beautyrest.

Tipos de mesas

Tipos de mesas

* Mesa camilla. Mesa redonda con bastidor para colocar el brasero en el centro. Se suele colocar en el centro del salón y se cubre con faldas.
* Mesa plegable. Mesa cuyo tablero se pliega por la mitad y se gira para ocupar la mitad del espacio.
* Mesa extensible. Mesa con tablero partido por la mitad que se asienta sobre guías. El tablero se separa si es necesario y se inserta en el centro un suplemento de madera. Se trata de una mesa polivalente que puede ampliarse en situaciones excepcionales, por ejemplo, si se reciben visitas. El añadido se disimula al colocar encima el mantel.
* Mesa auxiliar. Mesa de pequeñas dimensiones que se utiliza para posar objetos de forma temporal o en caso de necesidad. Sirve de apoyo a las mesas principales. Se sitúa en los pasillos, esquinas o junto a los sillones. En ocasiones, se presentan juegos de mesas auxiliares de diferentes tamaños que se guardan una debajo de la otra y se despliegan si las circustancias lo requieren.
* Mesa de juego. Mesa con tapete que se utiliza para jugar a las cartas. Tiene cajones en los que se guardan las barajas, fichas y material para apuntar. En ocasiones, presenta ceniceros incrustados. Como se les da un uso esporádico, generalmente, son plegables.
* Mesa de despacho. Mesa amplia y de buena calidad utilizada para las labores de despacho. Tiene cajón o cajones tan sólo por uno de los lados.
* Mesa de ordenador. Mueble sobre el que se coloca el ordenador. Sobre el tablero superior se sitúa la pantalla y algunos periféricos y en una repisa inferior el CPU y la impresora. Cuenta también con bandeja extraíble para colocar el teclado.
* Trinchante o trinchero. Mesa que se encuentra en los comedores y se utilizaba para trinchar la carne. Generalmente, se trata de un mueble largo y estrecho que se coloca junto a la pared.
* Velador. Mesa con un solo pie de hierro que se encuentra en bares y cafeterías. El velador por antonomasia tiene la superficie redonda y se coloca en la terraza de los establecimientos.
* Pupitre. Mesa utilizada por los niños que tiene el tablero inclinado para escribir sobre ella. Es un mueble tradicionalmente utilizado en las escuelas. En ocasiones, el tablero es abatible dejando al descubierto un cajón donde guardar el material de estudio.
* Consola. Mesa de dos o cuatro pies destinada sostener objetos de adorno en los salones y dispuesta para estar arrimada a la pared. Data de principios del siglo XVIII.

historia

La mesa típica y primitiva se halla por primera vez en la época de las antiguas dinastías de Egipto, al menos desde la dinastía XVIII, unos quince siglos antes de Cristo. Tiene forma rectangular con patas verticales en sus cuatro ángulos. Las de tijera con pies cruzados y articulados estuvo así mismo en uso entre los egipcios y pueblos antiguos, siendo muy freucente en unas y otras el remate de los pies en su parte inferior a manera de garra de león o pezuña de rumiante.

La mesa de tres pies y la redonda de un solo pie fueron conocidas por los egipcios y otros pueblo orientales. Sin embargo, fueron los griegos y romanos los que las utilizaron en mayor medida. Los trípodes o mesas délficas se empleaban principalmente para realizar los augurios y sacrificios paganos y las mesas de un solo pie el cual a veces representa la figura de un esclavo en otras remata por debajo en tres pequeños pies, servían principalmente en los triclinios o comedores. Entre los griegos y romanos también fueron utilizadas las de dos pies constituidas por un tablero rematado en los extremos en dos figuras de animales. Los egipcios y más aún los griegos fabricaban las mesas con pies encorvados, uso que muchos siglos más tarde siguió el estilo barroco y, sobre todo, el rococó de Luis XV.

En las antiguas civilizaciones no se destinaba la mesa a escritorio pues los escribas ejercían su oficio en el suelo sobre sus rodillas. Pero desde los primeros siglos de la Edad Media, se usan mesas también para este fin aunque siempre revisten formas muy sencillas.

En el Renacimiento, se presentan mesas lujosas, adornadas con incrustaciones y con los pies torneados o esculpidos. A mediados del siglo XVII aparece en la Corte de Francia el lujoso bufete (el bureau) o mesa de escritorio con cubierta a veces cilíndrica y otras parecida a la de un piano que se abre fácilmente. A finales del siglo XIX se empieza a utilizar la mesa ministro que en lugar de pies tiene filas de cajones a un lado y otro.

Mesa es también la denominación que se da a una formación geológica.

mesa

Mueble con patas y tablero plano que se utiliza para posar objetos. Suele tener, al menos, cuatro patas pero puede tener tres o incluso un solo pie con base ancha. El tablero determina su forma y dimensiones pudiendo ser cuadrado, ovalado, redondo, etc.

La mesa puede estar fabricada en diferentes materiales: madera, hierro, plástico o una combinación de ellos, por ejemplo, las patas de metal y la superficie de madera. Según su destino, se fabrica en uno u otro material. Por ejemplo.

* Mesa de cocina. Debe ser lavable por lo que el tablero suele ser de granito, melamina o madera con acabado plástico.
* Mesa de jardín. Al dejarse a la intemperie, se fabrica en hierro con tratamiento antihumedad o en plástico.
* Mesa de comedor. Suele ser de madera de mayor calidad: cerezo, castaño, haya, palisandro, etc

El ajuar

El ajuar es el conjunto de muebles, enseres y ropas de uso común en la casa. Tradicionalmente, era la esposa la que aportaba el ajuar al matrimonio (entendiendo en este caso que se refería fundamentalmente a las ropas).

Era responsabilidad de la madre ir preparando el ajuar de sus hijas antes de que éstas llegasen al matrimonio. Tradicionalmente, el ajuar iba siendo construido por la novia, de acuerdo con su posición económica. La confección y bordado de determinadas prendas (manteles, sábanas...) era realizado por la propia novia antes de la boda.

Sin embargo, con la equiparación entre el hombre y la mujer en las sociedades occidentales, la costumbre de que cada mujer fuese construyendo un ajuar antes de la boda está pasando al olvido.

El arcón

El arcón (o arca en sus dimensiones menores) es un mueble en forma de caja cerrada que se destina a guardar objetos varios como ropa de cama, enseres, etc. El arcón y otros muebles similares (ver último epígrafe) cuyo destino es el estar en las habitaciones se apoyan sobre pies más o menos elevados o sobre un banquillo salvo las arquetas y cofrecillos debido a sus pequeñas dimensiones.


Historia

El arca y el cofre de madera y con pies elevados se ha descubierto en tumbas egipcias como la de Amenofis III del siglo XV a.C. adornados con incrustaciones y pinturas. Entre los griegos, el arca tenía forma cuadrangular y pies cortos. Siguió con esta misma forma entre los romanos quienes la reforzaban con placas de hierro o de bronce. Durante el Imperio, llegaron a tener cerradura y llave ambas en materiales como el bronce o el hierro. Durante la Edad Media se recubrían con piel o con tela pintada y se reforzaban con herrajes o se adornaban con guarniciones de metal, constituyendo el arca uno de los principales muebles de las habitaciones. Las de marfil o de plata o de bronce esmaltado, bastante comunes en la Edad Media eran arquetas para guardar joyas o para contener reliquias.

Desde el siglo XIV aparecen las arcas y los cofres adornados con relieves o con guadameciles repujados y a veces con incrustaciones permaneciendo en esta forma durante los tres siglos siguientes hasta que el uso de las cómodas y armarios hizo desaparecer de la habitación el arca y otros similares como objetos o muebles de lujo. En el Renacimiento, muchos cofres o arcas admiten la forma de urna con movidas líneas curvas y reciben decoraciones de gusto plateresco. Las arcas más elegantes de toda ésta época se conocen como arcas de novia o cofres nupciales porque solían enviarse por el esposo a su prometida en la víspera de la boda.

cortinas

Las cortinas son unos elementos para cubrir las ventanas por dentro o las entradas a las habitaciones o las casas.

Normalmente son de tela que deja pasar la luz pero dificultan la visión desde el exterior.

Otro tipo algo menos comun son las cortinas venecianas.

Estan compuestas de tiras dispuestas horizontal o verticalmente. Esas tiras se pueden inclinar para dejar pasar más o menos luz, o tambien se pueden recoger hacia el techo, las horizontales; o correr lateralmente como las cortinas normales. Las bandas pueden estar hechas de distintos materiales, laminas tipo chapa u otro material suficientemente resisten como para que no se comben, en caso de las venecianas horizontales; en caso de las verticales pueden ser tela u otro material blando y ser lastradas con un pequeño peso para mantenerlas lisas.

Otro tipo de cortina habitual de los pueblos y que se colocan a la entrada de las casas o los establecimientos para evitar que entre las moscas, son las cortinas mosquiteras.

Estan hechas con multiples piezas de plástico con forma de macarrón tipo penne, con un alambre con ganchos atravesandolas a largo, para poder engancharlos entre ellos.

Con esta piezas se hacen multiples tiras hasta cubrir toda la entrada.

En un sentido mas amplio, tambien puede referir a una corriente de aire, que disminuir la perdida de aire caliente o frío de un espacio sin cerrar, ya sea un local o frigorífico abierto.

Tambien puede ser un cortina de humo, utilizada para ocultarse del enemigo.

Consideraciones de diseño

Consideraciones de diseño

El diseño de un cuarto de baño tiene que considerar el uso de agua tanto caliente y fría en cantidades significativas para lavar el cuerpo humano. El agua puede derramarse sobre las paredes y el suelo y el aire húmedo puede causar condensación en las superficies frías. Para evitar que el agua salte al suelo, las bañeras y duchas se suelen rodear de cortinas o mamparas.

Desde un punto de vista decorativo un cuarto de baño representa un reto. Los materiales de paredes y suelo deben ser impermeables al agua y fáciles y rápidos de lavar, sin embargo es conveniente que el techo no sea impermeable y se utilice una pintura permeable (al temple) para que el yeso o escayola sirvan de absorbedores temporales del vapor producido por una ducha, para secarse poco a poco después.

El uso de cerámica o vidrio así como materiales plásticos es común en baños por su facilidad de limpieza. Sin embargo, dichas superficies son a menudo frías al tacto por lo que se utilizan alfombrillas de baño para hacer el contacto más cálido.
Al tratarse de habitaciones pequeñas y en muchos casos interiores, los decoradores recomiendan instalar muchos puntos de luz y, al menos colocar un espejo grande, para agrandar visualmente el espacio.

Los aparatos eléctricos, como luces, calentadores y radiadores de toallas se suelen colocar como elementos fijos evitando el uso de enchufes. Además deben estar a una distancia mínima de la bañera o ducha, para disminuir el riesgo de entrar en contacto eléctrico (con los pies mojados, es decir haciendo tierra) y sufrir una descarga que podría ser mortal.

Las bases de enchufe que interrumpen el circuito eléctrico pueden reducir este riesgo y son obligatorios en las instalaciones realizadas en baños en algunos países como Estados Unidos y Canadá. En otros países, como Reino Unido, sólo se permiten en baños ciertos enchufes especiales para maquinillas eléctricas.

cuarto de baño

Un cuarto de baño es una habitación utilizada para el aseo personal, el baño y la evacuación.

Los elementos más habituales de un baño son:

* Una bañera o ducha.
* Un inodoro.
* Un lavabo.
* Ocasionalmente, un bidé.
* Armarios o baldas para almacenar los productos de aseo.

Los accesorios más habituales que se encuentran son:

* Toalleros, tanto para toallas de mano como de baño.
* Portarollos, para colocar el papel higiénico.
* Escobillero.

Hay otros locales que no disponen de todos estos aparatos. En países fríos suele separarse el inodoro (con un lavamanos) en otro local aparte, puesto que requiere más ventilación que enfriaría demasiado el ambiente para darse un baño.

Historia

Historia

El armario se conoce al menos desde la época romana según aparece en las pinturas de Herculano. Aunque al principio sólo sirviera para contener armas, según indica su nombre, pronto se utilizó para guardar todo tipo de objetos. En la Edad Media, con excepción de las iglesias y monasterios, servía sólo para encerrar las armas y armaduras pues los demás objetos se guardaban en arcas o en sencillos aparadores. Pero ya desde principios del siglo XV se usaba como armario con el mismo fin que ahora y sus puertas se decoraban con relieves cuando antes sólo llevaban pinturas. En los siglos XVI y XVII se usaban elegantes armarios de dos cuerpos y desde el siglo XVIII se construyen armarios-vitrina y bibliotecas-vitrina como dignos muebles de salón y de gabinete.

armarios

Mueble cerrado por medio de puertas con estantes o perchas que sirve para guardar objetos o prendas. Las puertas pueden ser tradicionales o correderas utilizándose las segundas en lugares de paso estrecho ya que necesita menor espacio.

El armario es propio de cualquier estancia de la casa adecuando su forma y dimensiones al uso al que va destinado:

* En la cocina, los armarios son pequeños y se colocan bajo la encimera o suspendidos de la pared y se utilizan para guardar alimentos o enseres de cocina.
* Si se colocan en los recibidores para dejar prendas de abrigo, reciben el nombre de gabaneros.
* En los cuartos de baño son pequeños y sirven para guardar productos cosméticos o de higiene personal.

El armario empotrado es el mueble de obra que se incrusta en la pared o en un hueco del muro.

Ebano

Árbol perteneciente a la familia de las ebenáceas. Su nombre científico es Dyospiros ebenum. Es originario de la India y Sri Lanka. Hay dos tipos de especies la asiatica y la africana Llamada “mpingo” en África Oriental, y “zebrawood” en África del Sur. Su nombre científico es “dalbergia melanoxylon”. Esta madera tiene una densidad aproximada de 1.5 ton/m³, al ser talado, posteriormente, cuando seco, se reduce a 1.35 ton/m³, más de tres veces la densidad del pino y más de dos veces la del teca [Teak]. Es la madera más dura y más pesada del mundo(no flota en el agua)! El Ébano tiene un atractivo color café oscuro con vetas negras, las cuales son predominantes y su aspecto es casi negro. El Ébano se encuentra en cerca de 20 países de África, dentro del triángulo comprendido entre Sudán, Angola y el Cabo Oriental en África del Sur. En la mayoría de los lugares crece como un arbusto. Sólo crece como árbol en ciertas partes de Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, y la República Democrática del Congo. Los grandes troncos pueden alcanzar un diámetro de 600 mm, aún un tronco corto pesa entre 800-1000 kg. Troncos de este tamaño son escasos, pues se necesitan más de 200 años para lograr dichas dimensiones. Esta madera es la estándar para la fabricación de instrumentos de viento. Su madera valiosa se utiliza para fabricación de muebles.

Cuna

Cama pequeña para niños pequeños. Las cunas tienen la característica específica de tener barrotes o protecciones laterales para evitar caídas durante el sueño. Las cunas tradicionales tenían pies semicirculares que servían para balancearlas y así inducir el sueño del bebé. Sin embargo, actualmente, la mayoría presenta patas estándar con ruedas. Éstas cumplen la doble función de dotarlas de movilidad y de permitir mecer a los bebés.

Existen muchos modelos de cunas fabricadas en diferentes materiales: madera, plástico, metal, etc. Algunas cunas pequeñas diseñadas para bebés incorporan un dosel superior que actúa como elemento estético y para proteger al niño de la luz. Sobre el mismo, a menudo se atan lazos o se cuelga un cascabel u otros elementos sonoros como móviles (piezas articuladas con elementos colgantes que se mueven para distraer la atención del bebé). Para hacerlas más agradables a la vista, algunas cunas se visten con faldas que se adornan con cintas, lazos u otros objetos estéticos.

Los modelos de cuna para niños de hasta tres o cuatro años son más grandes y tienen los laterales altos para prevenir saltos o caídas. En algunos casos, una de las paredes es practicable pudiéndose mover o retirar para meter o sacar al niño con menor esfuerzo.

Las cunas suelen utilizar un colchón de espuma por poder cortarse a medida y ser más confortable que el de muelles.

Cuna de viaje. Cuna plegable que se utiliza para desplazamientos. La estructura se pliega sobre sí misma para ocupar el mínimo espacio.

Historia

El banco de piedra, unido al muro interior de algún edificio se ha encontrado en las antiguas construcciones cretenses y micénicas. Con él se formaban también los asientos dispuestos en gradas de los teatros, hipódromos, circos y edificios semejantes de la época griega y romana. Pero como verdadero mueble apenas se conoce hasta la época románica (siglo XI) pues anterior a ésta tan solo se conserva algún ejemplar de bronce extraído de las ruinas de Pompeya.

Durante la Edad Media el papel del banco lo realizaban las arcas y arcones tan comunes como muebles de habitación incluso en las salas principales. Por ello, apenas se encuentra ni en las viviendas ni en lugares públicos.

Hasta el siglo XIV el banco tuvo formas muy sencillas. A partir de entonces, se adorna como las sillas y a menudo se convierte en sofá añadiéndole pequeños almohadones o bases acolchadas. Existen muchos bancos ornamentados del siglo XVII y XVIII que presentan escudos de armas en el respaldo. Desde el siglo XV se conoce el respaldo giratorio con el cual se aprovechaba alternativamente un lado y el otro del banco.

Banco

Mueble largo de estructura sencilla en el que pueden sentarse varias personas a la vez. El banco es de uso común en lugares públicos como parques, jardines estaciones de tren, aeropuertos, etc. Se construye en variados materiales como madera, metal, piedra o cemento. También es el mueble por excelencia en las iglesias en donde se disponen por filas y son utilizados por los fieles durante el servicio religioso.

Cuando el banco es de materiales sencillos como yeso o piedra y se arrima a las paredes interiores o exteriores de las viviendas y edificios se denomina poyo.

Tocador

Mueble que sirve para arreglar el tocado, es decir el arreglo de la cabeza, ya sea peinado o la disposición de cualquier prenda cubrecabezas.

Consta de un espejo, obviamente indispensable, y de una serie de cajones donde se pueden guardar los instrumentos, afeites, perfumes y adornos necesarios para tal fin. Suele situarse en el dormitorio o pieza aledaña.

sofas

tresillos